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larq.models.summary(model, print_fn=None, include_macs=True)

Prints a string summary of the network.

The summary includes the following information per layer:

  • input precision,
  • output dimension,
  • weight count (broken down by bidtwidth),
  • memory footprint in kilobytes (8*1024 1-bit weights = 1 kB),
  • number of multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations broken down by precision (optional & expermental).

A single MAC operation contains both a multiplication and an addition. The precision of a MAC operation is defined as the maximum bitwidth of its inputs.

Additionally, the following overall statistics for the model are supplied:

  • total number of weights,
  • total number of trainable weights,
  • total number of non-trainable weights,
  • model size,
  • model size (8-bit FP weights): memory footprint if FP weights were 8 bit,
  • float-32 equivalent size: memory footprint if all weights were 32 bit,
  • compression ratio achieved by quantizing weights,
  • total number of MAC operations,
  • ratio of MAC operations that is binarized and can be accelated with XNOR-gates.


  • model tf.keras.Model: model instance.
  • print_fn Optional[Callable[str, Any]]: Print function to use. Defaults to print. You can set it to a custom function in order to capture the string summary.
  • include_macs bool: whether or not to include the number of MAC-operations in the summary.


  • ValueError: if called before the model is built.