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larq.quantizers

A Quantizer defines the way of transforming a full precision input to a quantized output and the pseudo-gradient method used for the backwards pass.

Quantizers can either be used through quantizer arguments that are supported for Larq layers, such as input_quantizer and kernel_quantizer; or they can be used similar to activations, i.e. either through an Activation layer, or through the activation argument supported by all forward layers:

import tensorflow as tf
import larq as lq
...
x = lq.layers.QuantDense(64, activation=None)(x)
x = lq.layers.QuantDense(64, input_quantizer="ste_sign")(x)

is equivalent to:

x = lq.layers.QuantDense(64)(x)
x = tf.keras.layers.Activation("ste_sign")(x)
x = lq.layers.QuantDense(64)(x)

as well as:

x = lq.layers.QuantDense(64, activation="ste_sign")(x)
x = lq.layers.QuantDense(64)(x)

We highly recommend using the first of these formulations: for the other two formulations, intermediate layers - like batch normalization or average pooling - and shortcut connections may result in non-binary input to the convolutions.

Quantizers can either be referenced by string or called directly. The following usages are equivalent:

lq.layers.QuantDense(64, kernel_quantizer="ste_sign")
lq.layers.QuantDense(64, kernel_quantizer=lq.quantizers.SteSign(clip_value=1.0))

[source]

NoOp

larq.quantizers.NoOpQuantizer(precision, **kwargs)

Instantiates a serializable no-op quantizer.

\[ q(x) = x \]

Warning

This quantizer will not change the input variable. It is only intended to mark variables with a desired precision that will be recognized by optimizers like Bop and add training metrics to track variable changes.

Example

layer = lq.layers.QuantDense(
    16, kernel_quantizer=lq.quantizers.NoOpQuantizer(precision=1),
)
layer.build((32,))
assert layer.kernel.precision == 1

Arguments

  • precision int: Set the desired precision of the variable. This can be used to tag
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

[source]

SteSign

larq.quantizers.SteSign(clip_value=1.0, **kwargs)

Instantiates a serializable binary quantizer.

\[ q(x) = \begin{cases} -1 & x < 0 \\ 1 & x \geq 0 \end{cases} \]

The gradient is estimated using the Straight-Through Estimator (essentially the binarization is replaced by a clipped identity on the backward pass). \[\frac{\partial q(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} 1 & \left|x\right| \leq \texttt{clip_value} \\ 0 & \left|x\right| > \texttt{clip_value} \end{cases}\]

Arguments

  • clip_value float: Threshold for clipping gradients. If None gradients are not clipped.
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

References


[source]

ApproxSign

larq.quantizers.ApproxSign(*args, metrics=None, **kwargs)

Instantiates a serializable binary quantizer. \[ q(x) = \begin{cases} -1 & x < 0 \\ 1 & x \geq 0 \end{cases} \]

The gradient is estimated using the ApproxSign method. \[\frac{\partial q(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} (2 - 2 \left|x\right|) & \left|x\right| \leq 1 \\ 0 & \left|x\right| > 1 \end{cases} \]

Arguments

  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

References


[source]

SteHeaviside

larq.quantizers.SteHeaviside(clip_value=1.0, **kwargs)

Instantiates a binarization quantizer with output values 0 and 1. \[ q(x) = \begin{cases} +1 & x > 0 \\ 0 & x \leq 0 \end{cases} \]

The gradient is estimated using the Straight-Through Estimator (essentially the binarization is replaced by a clipped identity on the backward pass).

\[\frac{\partial q(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} 1 & \left|x\right| \leq 1 \\ 0 & \left|x\right| > 1 \end{cases}\]

Arguments

  • clip_value float: Threshold for clipping gradients. If None gradients are not clipped.
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

Returns

AND Binarization function


[source]

SwishSign

larq.quantizers.SwishSign(beta=5.0, **kwargs)

Sign binarization function.

\[ q(x) = \begin{cases} -1 & x < 0 \\ 1 & x \geq 0 \end{cases} \]

The gradient is estimated using the SignSwish method.

\[ \frac{\partial q_{\beta}(x)}{\partial x} = \frac{\beta\left\{2-\beta x \tanh \left(\frac{\beta x}{2}\right)\right\}}{1+\cosh (\beta x)} \]

Arguments

  • beta float: Larger values result in a closer approximation to the derivative of the sign.
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

Returns

SwishSign quantization function

References


[source]

MagnitudeAwareSign

larq.quantizers.MagnitudeAwareSign(clip_value=1.0, **kwargs)

Instantiates a serializable magnitude-aware sign quantizer for Bi-Real Net.

A scaled sign function computed according to Section 3.3 in Zechun Liu et al.

Arguments

  • clip_value float: Threshold for clipping gradients. If None gradients are not clipped.
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

References


[source]

SteTern

larq.quantizers.SteTern(
    threshold_value=0.05, ternary_weight_networks=False, clip_value=1.0, **kwargs
)

Instantiates a serializable ternarization quantizer.

\[ q(x) = \begin{cases} +1 & x > \Delta \\ 0 & |x| < \Delta \\ -1 & x < - \Delta \end{cases} \]

where \(\Delta\) is defined as the threshold and can be passed as an argument, or can be calculated as per the Ternary Weight Networks original paper, such that

\[ \Delta = \frac{0.7}{n} \sum_{i=1}^{n} |W_i| \] where we assume that \(W_i\) is generated from a normal distribution.

The gradient is estimated using the Straight-Through Estimator (essentially the Ternarization is replaced by a clipped identity on the backward pass). \[\frac{\partial q(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} 1 & \left|x\right| \leq \texttt{clip_value} \\ 0 & \left|x\right| > \texttt{clip_value} \end{cases}\]

Arguments

  • threshold_value float: The value for the threshold, \(\Delta\).
  • ternary_weight_networks bool: Boolean of whether to use the Ternary Weight Networks threshold calculation.
  • clip_value float: Threshold for clipping gradients. If None gradients are not clipped.
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

References


[source]

DoReFa

larq.quantizers.DoReFaQuantizer(k_bit=2, **kwargs)

Instantiates a serializable k_bit quantizer as in the DoReFa paper.

\[ q(x) = \begin{cases} 0 & x < \frac{1}{2n} \\ \frac{i}{n} & \frac{2i-1}{2n} < x < \frac{2i+1}{2n} \text{ for } i \in \{1,n-1\}\\ 1 & \frac{2n-1}{2n} < x \end{cases} \]

where \(n = 2^{\text{k_bit}} - 1\). The number of bits, k_bit, needs to be passed as an argument. The gradient is estimated using the Straight-Through Estimator (essentially the binarization is replaced by a clipped identity on the backward pass). \[\frac{\partial q(x)}{\partial x} = \begin{cases} 1 & 0 \leq x \leq 1 \\ 0 & \text{else} \end{cases}\]

Warning

While the DoReFa paper describes how to do quantization for both weights and activations, this implementation is only valid for activations, and this quantizer should therefore not be used as a kernel quantizer.

Arguments

  • k_bit int: number of bits for the quantization.
  • metrics: An array of metrics to add to the layer. If None the metrics set in larq.context.metrics_scope are used. Currently only the flip_ratio metric is available.

Returns

Quantization function

References